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- Clean Cities Coalition Contact Directory
- Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
- U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Economy Information Website
- Vehicle Conversion Basics and Regulations
Alternative Fueling Station Locator
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
- Powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that stores energy in a battery.
- Run on gasoline and cannot be plugged in for charging.
- Use battery power while stopped and at low speeds.
- Provide extra power to the gasoline engine during high speeds.
- 30% to 50% more fuel efficient than comparable conventional vehicles; model year 2015 HEVs average 42 mpg.
- Examples: Toyota Prius, Ford Fusion Hybrid.
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV)
- Use a battery to power an electric motor in addition to an internal combustion engine.
- Provide the distance security of a conventional vehicle while taking advantage of electricity’s economic and emissions benefits.
- Can be plugged in to charge.
- All electric range is generally 20-40 miles without using the internal combustion engine.
- Examples: Chevrolet Volt, Ford C-MAX Energi.
All-Electric Vehicles (EV)
- Powered solely by an electric motor using a battery.
- Must be plugged in to charge.
- Recharging ranges from 20 minutes to 20 hours.
- Range is typically limited to 60 to 120 miles on a full charge, although some models can go 200 to 300 miles.
- Extremely efficient with no tailpipe emissions.
- Examples: Tesla Model S, Nissan Leaf.
Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles (CNG)
- Natural gas is clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced.
- Cheaper than gasoline and diesel.
- Comparable fuel economy to conventional vehicles.
- Dedicated and bi-fuel vehicles available.
- More common in the medium-to heavy-duty market.
- Example: Chevrolet Impala, Ram 2500.
CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation
- Biodiesel is produced from new and used vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled restaurant grease.
- Significantly reduced life cycle carbon emissions.
- Can range in concentration from B2 (2% biodiesel, 98% diesel) to B100.
- B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel) is the most common blend.
- All major OEMs support the use of at least B5 under their warranties.
- Biodiesel is available in all 50 states.
- Examples: Ram 2500 HD, GMC Sierra 2500.
Ethanol Flex-Fuel Vehicles (FFV)
- Run on gasoline and any blend of gasoline and ethanol up to E85 (or flex fuel).
- E85 is a blend of gasoline and 51% - 83% ethanol.
- One fueling system that can accommodate the variance in fuel.
- Very similar to gasoline vehicles.
- Can have a lower fuel economy than a conventional vehicle.
- Examples: Chevrolet Impala, Audi A4 Quattro.
Propane Vehicles (LPG)
- Also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
- Third most commonly used motor fuel in the world.
- Dedicated vehicles run on only propane.
- Bi-fuel vehicles have two separate fueling systems and can run on propane or gasoline.
- Generally propane is lower and more stable in price than gasoline.
- Examples: Ford F-150, Ford Transit 250.
- Propane Basics
- Propane Benefits and Considerations
- Propane Fueling Stations
- Propane Vehicles
- Propane Laws and Incentives by State